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By John G. Webster (Editor)

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More sophisticated algorithms have been devised that avoid this problem. Edge Smoothing and Corner Detection. Many methods of edge smoothing are possible. For example, we may map white pixels that have fewer than, say, three white 8-neighbors to black. This has the effect of eliminating ‘‘hair’’ around the edge of bloblike figure. Another technique described previously for eliminating small spots offers another possibility. A third option is to use the processing sequence: expand, shrink, shrink, expand, where expand represents expansion of white areas and shrink denotes shrinking of white areas.

Euler number. 672 MACHINE VISION FOR ROBOTICS AND INSPECTION • Ratio of the areas of the original blob and that of its convex hull. • Ratio of the areas of the original blob and that of its circumcircle. • Ratio of the area of the blob to the square of the total limb length of its skeleton. • Distances between joints and limb ends of the skeleton. • Ratio of the projections onto the major and minor axes. There are numerous other shape measurements described in the literature. Global Image Transforms An important class of image-processing operators is characterized by an equation of the form B ⇐ f(A), where A ϭ ͕a(i, j)͖ and B ϭ ͕b(p, q)͖.

A and B are input images. C is an output image. 2. W denotes the white level. ) 3. g(X) is a function of a single independent variable X. 4. h(X, Y) is a function of two independent variables X and Y. 5. The assignment operator ⇐ will be used to define an operation that is performed upon all pixels within an image. 6. k1 and k2 are constants. 7. N(i, j) is that set of pixels arranged around the pixel (i, j) in the following way: (i Ϫ 1, j Ϫ 1) (i Ϫ 1, j) (i Ϫ 1, j ϩ 1) (i, j Ϫ 1) (i, j) (i, j ϩ 1) (i ϩ 1, j Ϫ 1) (i ϩ 1, j) (i ϩ 1, j ϩ 1) Notice that N(i, j) forms a 3 ϫ 3 set of pixels and hence is referred to as the 3 ϫ 3 neighborhood of (i, j).

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53.Robotics and Automation by John G. Webster (Editor)


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