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By Carl Robert Whitehead

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Spd+ ptptxpd-! ghflfh! g. Baruya, see Lloyd 1969) have a noun class system with recognizable class markers on the root and concord between the noun and modifying elements. No such system exists synchronically in Menya though there is residual evidence of its prior existence, most strongly in the terms referring to adult humans and their gender. ) mature adult adult advance in age young mature adult female `o«j«! `o«x`fl« `o«gtdp«! male pnj«! pnx`fl« ,,! These words are readily recognizable as containing two morphemes but none of the morphemes are recognizable in other forms and, for most nouns, no such structure is in evidence.

No SR medial form requires an aspect marker and the sequential-simultaneous contrast is not generally coded. The most common set of forms, as used in (40), would fit Foley’s definition of dependent coordinates and cover as broad a range of logical and temporal relationships as ‘and’ does in English. They can, however, be case-marked which subordinates them to the clause on which they are dependent. A second set of forms coordinates two or more clauses into a clause complex (41); this complex as a whole can be questioned or negated by a single matrix verb to which it is subordinated.

15) Hpt! «l`p«! m`p«ptsh-! h=pt! «l`p«! ’ The dubitative mood not only marks doubt about the truth value of a proposition but also about the identity of an argument within a proposition. Thus, as in (16), the clitic =sh can co-occur with a question word, again either as an initiating statement of uncertainty or as an uncertain response to a question. 16) @flh s«ptdp«sh-! 3 Verbal clause structure overview In many ways, the clause or simple sentence is the central component in the structure of a language, just as the ‘room’ is the central component in the design of a building.

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A reference grammar of Menya, an Angan language of Papua New Guinea by Carl Robert Whitehead

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