By E. Ostenfeld
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However, the degree of arousal and motivation experienced by the swimmer will undoubtedly be less than it would have been had he expected XOF (His adaptation level) rather than (X-lStF. This means that his expectations, apart from his adaptation level, are also important in determining his response. Clearly, then, his arousal and motivation will be a function of the discrepancy between input, on the one hand, and both adaptation level and expectation, on the other hand. There is another important difference between Dember and Earl (1957) and McClelland et at.
A nxiety Reduction Finally, White explored the use of anxiety reduction as an explanation of exploration. To accept this explanation, one would have to accept that novel stimuli arouse anxiety and that the exploration of these reduces it. But, surely, if novelty induces anxiety, avoidance would be a more probable anxiety red ucer than would exploration. Yet animals often seem eager to confront and explore the stimuli, which would, according to this approach, be anxiety producing. In sum, White (1959) and Berlyne (1966) have argued quite convincingly that a drive explanation of exploratory and manipulative behaviors is suspect.
Hunt (1963, 1965, 1971a, 1971b) has been the strongest spokesman for this point of view. Much of the work related to incongruity was not presented by the original authors within a framework of intrinsic motivation. However, Hunt has brought this work together within that framework. The central issue for most of the work in this area is the extent to which people will approach or avoid incongruous (or dissonant or discrepant) inputs (or cognitions). Some writers maintain that people are motivated to reduce all incongruity or dissonance between stimuli.
Ancient Greek Psychology and Modern Mind-Body Debate by E. Ostenfeld