Authority and the Individual (Routledge Classics) - download pdf or read online

By Bertrand Russell

ISBN-10: 0415487331

ISBN-13: 9780415487337

From historic Greek philosophy to the French Revolution to the fashionable welfare country, in Authority and the Individual Bertrand Russell tackles the perennial questions about the stability among authority and human freedom. With attribute readability and deep knowing, he explores the formation and goal of society, schooling, ethical evolution and social, low-priced and highbrow growth. First of the famous BBC Reith lectures, this excellent assortment gives you Russell at his highbrow best.

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Example text

Ideas in this sense are indestructible and not subject to any change in time. Not being perceived in the forms of space and time, they are not individuals. These Ideas are the only objects in the Schopenhauerian system which can neither be destroyed nor changed in any way. The Will as thing-in-itself, of course, is immutable and indestructible as well, but it never does, as such, become an object. The Ideas represent the Will in the general form of an object for a subject but never in the special forms which come under the heading of the principle of sufficient reason.

The thing-in-itself. Since space and time in his eyes form the principium individuationis, Schopenhauer claims that the Will, expressing itself as empirical objects, living beings, persons, cannot but express itself as different individuals. Where there is expression of the Will in space and time, there is individuality and variety. Different individuals have different aims and, since they are all of a willing nature, they compete and fight about their place in the phenomenal world. This is how Schopenhauer justifies his thesis that every form in which the Will expresses itself is the enemy of other forms.

Moreover, the validity of the said forms is limited to ‘normal’ sense perception, that is, to our experience of the empirical world including ourselves, or the world of phenomena. , outside our normal way of perceiving the world and ourselves, is free from space, time and causality. When the person happens to perceive in a way which is not experience of that kind, he or she does not perceive parts of the empirical, phenomenal world but something quite different. In this case, according to Schopenhauer, the person perceives an extratemporal, extraspatial reality with no causal structure.

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Authority and the Individual (Routledge Classics) by Bertrand Russell


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